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                        Classification of steel
                        Author: Anshan Zizhu Heavy Steel Co.  Time:2016-07-14  Browsing times :3463
                        Ferrous ls, steel and nonferrous ls
                        Before introducing the classification of steel, the basic concepts of ferrous ls, steel and nonferrous ls are briefly introduced.
                        1, ferrous l is the alloy of iron and iron. Such as steel, pig iron, iron alloy, cast iron, etc.. Steel and pig iron are iron d, with carbon as the main element of the alloy, referred to as iron carbon alloy. Pig iron refers to the iron ore into the blast furnace smelting and into the products, mainly used in steel making and casting. The cast iron in cupola melting, cast iron (liquid), the liquid cast iron cast into casting, the cast iron is cast iron pieces. Ferroalloy is made of iron and silicon, manganese, chromium, titanium and other elements of the alloy, iron alloy is one of the raw materials used in steelmaking, steel and alloy elements to do the use of additives.
                        2, the steelmaking with pig iron into the furnace according to a certain process of smelting, that is, the steel. Steel products have cast ingot casting billet and direct steel castings etc.. Commonly referred to as steel, generally refers to a variety of steel rolled steel. Steel belongs to the black l but the steel is not equal to the black l.

                        3, non-ferrous ls, non-ferrous ls, refers to the l and alloy, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum and brass, bronze, aluminum alloy and bearing alloy, etc.. Also in the industry also uses chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, the l mainly used as alloy additives, to improve the l performance, which tungsten, titanium, molybdenum with hard alloy tool production. These non-ferrous ls are known as industrial ls, in addition to precious ls: platinum, gold, silver and other rare ls, including radioactive uranium, radium, etc..

                        Ferrous ls, steel and nonferrous ls
                        Before introducing the classification of steel, the basic concepts of ferrous ls, steel and nonferrous ls are briefly introduced.
                        1, ferrous l is the alloy of iron and iron. Such as steel, pig iron, iron alloy, cast iron, etc.. Steel and pig iron are iron d, with carbon as the main element of the alloy, referred to as iron carbon alloy. Pig iron refers to the iron ore into the blast furnace smelting and into the products, mainly used in steel making and casting. The cast iron in cupola melting, cast iron (liquid), the liquid cast iron cast into casting, the cast iron is cast iron pieces. Ferroalloy is made of iron and silicon, manganese, chromium, titanium and other elements of the alloy, iron alloy is one of the raw materials used in steelmaking, steel and alloy elements to do the use of additives.
                        2, the steelmaking with pig iron into the furnace according to a certain process of smelting, that is, the steel. Steel products have cast ingot casting billet and direct steel castings etc.. Commonly referred to as steel, generally refers to a variety of steel rolled steel. Steel belongs to the black l but the steel is not equal to the black l.
                        3, non-ferrous ls, non-ferrous ls, refers to the l and alloy, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum and brass, bronze, aluminum alloy and bearing alloy, etc.. Also in the industry also uses chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, the l mainly used as alloy additives, to improve the l performance, which tungsten, titanium, molybdenum with hard alloy tool production. These non-ferrous ls are known as industrial ls, in addition to precious ls: platinum, gold, silver and other rare ls, including radioactive uranium, radium, etc..

                        Two, the classification of steel
                        Carbon content in 0.04%-2.3% iron carbon alloy. In order to ensure its toughness and plasticity, carbon content is generally not more than 1.7%. The main elements of steel in addition to iron, carbon, as well as silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, etc.. There are many kinds of classification methods of steel, the main methods are as follows: seven:
                        1, according to the quality of classification
                        (1) ordinary steel (P = 0.045%, S = 0.050%)
                        (2) high quality steel (P, S = 0.035%)
                        (3) high quality steel (P = 0.035%, S = 0.030%)
                        2, according to the classification of chemical composition
                        (1) carbon steel: A. low carbon steel (C is equal to or less than 0.25%); B. carbon (C is equal to or less than 0.25~0.60%); C. high carbon steel (C is equal to or less than 0.60%).
                        (2) A. low alloy steel alloy steel (alloy element content is less than or equal to 5%) B. alloy steel (alloy element content > 5-10%) C. high alloy steel (alloy element content > 10%).
                        3, according to the forming method of classification: (1) forging steel; cast steel; (2) (3) (4) of hot rolled steel; cold drawn steel.
                        4, according to the llographic organization classification
                        (1) in the annealed state A. in hypoeutectoid steel (ferrite ferrite + pearlite) B. eutectoid steel (pearlite) C. A eutectoid steel (pearlite and cementite) d. ledeburite steel (pearlite and cementite).
                        (2) normalizing state: A. B. C. bainitic steel; pearlite; martensitic steels; austenitic steel d..
                        (3) no phase transition or phase transition
                        5, according to the use of classification
                        (1) construction and engineering of steel: A. ordinary carbon structural steel; B. low alloy structural steel; C. steel.
                        (2) structural steel
                        A. mechanical manufacturing steel: (a) quenched and tempered steel; (b) surface hardened steel, including carburizing steel, carburizing ammonia steel, surface hardened steel; (c) free cutting steel structure; (d) plastic cold forming steel: including cold stamping with cold heading steel, steel.
                        B. spring steel
                        C. bearing steel
                        (3) tool steel: A. carbon tool steel; B. alloy tool steel; C. high speed tool steel.
                        (4) special performance steel: A. stainless acid resistant steel B. heat resistant steel, including anti oxidation steel, heat strong steel, gas valve steel C. electric heating alloy steel; D. wear-resistant steel; e. low temperature steel; F. electrical steel
                        (5) professional steel - such as bridges with steel, ship steel, boiler steel, pressure vessel steel, agricultural machinery, steel, etc..

                        6, comprehensive classification
                        (1) ordinary steel
                        A. carbon structural steel: (a) Q195; (b) Q215 (A, B); (c) Q235 (A, B, C); (d) Q255 (A, B); (E) Q275.
                        B. low alloy structural steel
                        C. general structural steel for specific purposes
                        (2) high quality steel (including high quality steel)
                        A. structural steel: (a) high quality carbon structural steel; (b) alloy structural steel; (c) spring steel; (d) easy to cut steel; (E) bearing steel; (f) high quality structural steel ().
                        B. tool steel: (a) carbon tool steel; (b) alloy tool steel; (c) high speed tool steel.
                        C. special performance steel: (a) stainless acid resistant steel; (b) heat resistant steel; (c) electric heating alloy steel; (d) electrical steel; (E) high manganese wear resistant steel.
                        7, according to the smelting method classification
                        (1) according to the type of furnace
                        A.: open hearth steel (a) acid open hearth steel; (b) basic open hearth steel.
                        B. converter steel: (a) acid converter steel; (b) basic converter steel. Or (a) bottom blown converter steel; (b) side blown converter steel; BOF steel (C). C. electric furnace steel: (a) electric arc furnace steel; (b) ESR steel; (c) induction furnace steel; (d) vacuum consumable steel furnace; (E) electron beam furnace steel.
                        (2) according to the degree of oxygen and casting system
                        A. boiling steel; B. semi killed steel; C. killed steel; D. special killed steel.
                        8, according to the material can be divided into four types: type, plate, tube and wire.
                        A, type of steel, many varieties, is a certain section of the shape and size of solid steel strip. Two kinds of simple and complex cross sections are divided according to the shape of the section. The former includes round steel, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal steel and angle steel; and the latter consists of rail, I-beam, channel steel, steel window and profiled steel. In small diameter 6.5-9.0mm steel wire said.
                        B, steel plate is a kind of width and surface area are very large flat steel. According to the thickness of the thin plate (thickness <4mm), medium plate (thickness 4-25mm) and thick plate (thickness of >25mm) three. The steel strip is included in the steel plate.
                        C, steel pipe is a hollow section of the strip steel. According to the shape of the cross section can be divided into circular tube, square tube, hexagonal pipe and various special-shaped section of the steel pipe. According to different processing technology can be divided into two types of seamless steel pipe and welded pipe.
                        D, steel wire is a wire again cold processing products. According to the different shape of round steel wire, flat wire and triangle wire etc.. In addition to the direct use of steel wire, steel wire rope, also used in the production line of steel and other products.
                        9, in order to facilitate the procurement, ordering and management, China is currently divided into sixteen varieties of steel:
                        Category deion
                        Rail rail profiles per weight greater than 30 kg (including crane rail)
                        Rail with weight less than or equal to 30 kg per meter
                        Large steel ordinary steel, round steel, square steel, flat steel, hexagonal steel, I-beam, channel steel, equal and unequal leg angles and screw thread steel. Divided into large, medium and small size by size.
                        Medium sized steel
                        Small type steel
                        The wire diameter of 5-10 mm round bar and wire rod
                        Steel or steel strip formed by cold roll forming
                        Quality profile of high-quality steel round steel, flat steel, angle steel, Fang Gang, six
                        Other accessories, including heavy rail steel axle billet, tyre etc.
                        Sheet l plate thickness equal to or less than 4 mm.
                        Steel plate with thickness greater than 4 mm.
                        Can be divided into the plate (thickness greater than 4mm less than 20mm), thick plate (thickness greater than 20mm less than 60mm), special thick plate (thickness greater than 60mm)
                        The steel strip is also called the strip, which is actually a long, narrow strip of steel.
                        Electrical silicon steel sheet is also called silicon or silicon steel sheet
                        Steel seamless pipe hot rolling, hot rolling, cold wall production or extrusion methods such as pipe seamless steel pipe
                        Welded steel pipe will be rolled into steel or steel, and then welded into the steel pipe
                        l products, including steel wire, steel wire rope, steel wire, etc.



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